Types of Peer Pressure

Expressed vs. Implied Peer Pressure

Expressed peer pressure involves direct verbal persuasion to influence another's actions. For instance, a teenager might verbally encourage their friend to smoke by saying, "Come on, one cigarette won't hurt."

Implied peer pressure, on the other hand, operates without explicit verbal communication. Nevertheless, there exists an implicit expectation within the group regarding acceptable behaviour.

In the scenario described, even without verbal prompting, the teenager may still feel pressured to smoke because it appears to be the norm among their peers.

Direct vs. Indirect Peer Pressure

Direct peer pressure entails the use of either verbal or nonverbal cues to coerce someone into a particular action. For example, a teenager offering another teen a cigarette constitutes direct peer pressure, as the recipient must make an immediate decision on how to respond.

Indirect peer pressure, conversely, does not involve any specific targeting of individuals. Instead, the surrounding environment influences behaviour. For instance, at a party where alcohol consumption is widespread, individuals may feel compelled to drink even without explicit invitations to do so.

Positive vs. Negative Peer Pressure

Peer pressure can also be classified as either positive or negative based on its impact.

Positive peer pressure occurs when individuals are influenced by their peers to engage in constructive or beneficial behaviours.

Negative peer pressure, on the other hand, involves coercion to engage in actions that one would not typically choose or desire to fit in with a social group. This often includes pressure to consume alcohol or drugs.

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